What is Corruption?

Many organizations, both government and corporate, understand the need to satisfy the public and shareholders that they have policy to prevent financial corruption.  Is that enough?


Transparency International, through a multi-stakeholder initiative, identified the majority of the following additional forms of corruption:

  • Trading in Influence; occurs when a person who has real or apparent influence on the decision-making of a person exchanges this influence for an undue advantage.  The decision-maker may be unaware of the undue influence
  • Nepotism; a form of favouritism based on family relationships whereby someone in an official position exploits his or her power and authority to provide a job or favour to a family member
  • Favouritism
  • Cronyism; the favouring of friends
  • Patronage; the dispensation of favours and benefit such as public office, employment, contracts, subsidies, grants or honours by a patron.  Patronage is often made to build and retain the support of those who benefit.  This can be to retain political office or to exercise informal power
  • Fraud; wrongful or criminal deception intended to result in financial or personal gain
  • Tokenism; the practice of making only a perfunctory or symbolic effort to do a particular thing, especially by recruiting a small number of people from underrepresented groups in order to give the appearance of sexual or racial equality within a workforce
  • Collusion; an agreement between two or more parties, sometimes illegal and therefore secretive, to limit open competition by deceiving, misleading, or defrauding others of their legal rights.

Unique Corruption Risks to State Owned Enterprise


As economically and strategically important entities, state owned enterprises can become targets for corruption.  While state owned enterprises largely share the same corruption risks as other companies, they face additional and sometimes greater risks due to the potential interference from politicians and public officials as well as high risks of bribery in their own procurement processes and in cases of state owned enterprise being privatized.  The risks of corruption increase when state owned enterprises are poorly governed, are subject to conflicts of interest among board members and managers, or when board members and employees are not selected on merit.


Fit4DutyTM Anti-Corruption Programme


All of Fit4DutyTM's services are provided with the following goals in mind:

  • build a culture of internal integrity
  • promote good governance
  • provide a positive tone from the top
  • manage conflicts of interest
  • counter corruption in procurement
  • support transparency and public reporting.  


If you are interested in showing your commitment to ending corruption, do as Fit4DutyTM President Kelly did and sign the Transparency International's Declaration Against Corruption.  For a list of Fit4DutyTM services that can help you build your Anti-Corruption Programme, check out our Services page.